1. An individual has 4-6 parathyroid glands.
2. To secrete parathyroid hormone that regulates the calcium, magnesium and phosphate in our system.
3.4. The chief and the oxyphil cells are the cells commonly found in the parathyroid gland
5-7. The parathyroid regulates the secretion, excretion and absorption of calcium, phosphate and magnesium in our body.
8-9. Hyperparathyroidism & hypoparathyroidism
10. The parathyroid gland is located posteriorly in the surface of the thyroid gland.
The probable condition of the old woman is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by having a fragile bone because the bone has loss its normal density. And people having osteoporosis have a high risk of bone fracture. Common symptoms of osteoporosis are fractured bones (can be in spine and in hips) and lower backaches.
Osteoporosis is routinely diagnosed by x-ray. X-ray reveals that a bone having an osteoporosis is much thinner and lighter compared to normal bones, but the disadvantage of x-ray is that it cannot detect early stages of osteoporosis. So, for better diagnosis the National Osteoporosis foundation and the other major medical organization recommend- DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SCAN (DXA, formerly known as DEXA).
It only uses small amounts of radiation and it measures bone density in the hip and in the spine and compares it to the average bone density of an adult of the same sex and race. It is measured using a standard deviation.
Factors that have a high risk of having osteoporosis are:
- thin and small body frames
- personal history of fracture as an adult
- family history of oasteoporosis
- diet low in calcium
- cigarette smoking
- poor nutrition
- no exercise
As the name implies, hyperparathyroidism, is an excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone by parathyroid gland.
The common symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are:
- you feel nervous, moody, weak or tired
- have hand tremors
- sweat a lot
- loss weight
- parathyroid adenoma
- parathyroid hyperplasia
- parathyroid cancer
- kidney problems(kidney failure)
- familial endocrine neoplasia type 1
The usual scenario of hyperparathyroidism is, the balanced is disrupted. The blood calcium levels increase (hypercalemia), which may indicate that there is problem in the px parathyroid gland.
The common cause of it is family history with the said disease. Common ways to diagnose is by measuring PTH in the blood sample of the patient. And because there is too much calcium in the system, bone density can be checked too.
The simplified solution for this is the removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland, even if your parathyroid gland has been removed, it can regenerate again to produce a new parathyroid gland.
- Cure Research
- Endocrine. niddk