Monday, June 29, 2009

aNsWeRs to Parathyroid gland quiz

1. An individual has 4-6 parathyroid glands.
2. To secrete parathyroid hormone that regulates the calcium, magnesium and phosphate in our system.
3.4. The chief and the oxyphil cells are the cells commonly found in the parathyroid gland
5-7. The parathyroid regulates the secretion, excretion and absorption of calcium, phosphate and magnesium in our body.
8-9. Hyperparathyroidism & hypoparathyroidism
10. The parathyroid gland is located posteriorly in the surface of the thyroid gland.

CaSe AnaLySis

Case 1
The probable condition of the old woman is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by having a fragile bone because the bone has loss its normal density. And people having osteoporosis have a high risk of bone fracture. Common symptoms of osteoporosis are fractured bones (can be in spine and in hips) and lower backaches.

Osteoporosis is routinely diagnosed by x-ray. X-ray reveals that a bone having an osteoporosis is much thinner and lighter compared to normal bones, but the disadvantage of x-ray is that it cannot detect early stages of osteoporosis. So, for better diagnosis the National Osteoporosis foundation and the other major medical organization recommend- DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SCAN (DXA, formerly known as DEXA).

It only uses small amounts of radiation and it measures bone density in the hip and in the spine and compares it to the average bone density of an adult of the same sex and race. It is measured using a standard deviation.

Factors that have a high risk of having osteoporosis are:
  • females
  • thin and small body frames
  • personal history of fracture as an adult
  • family history of oasteoporosis
  • diet low in calcium
  • cigarette smoking
  • poor nutrition
  • no exercise

Case 2


As the name implies, hyperparathyroidism, is an excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone by parathyroid gland.

The common symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are:
  1. you feel nervous, moody, weak or tired
  2. have hand tremors
  3. sweat a lot
  4. loss weight
Too much parathyroid hormone can cause complications. Some of its underlying conditions are:
  • parathyroid adenoma
  • parathyroid hyperplasia
  • parathyroid cancer
  • kidney problems(kidney failure)
  • familial endocrine neoplasia type 1
As said in the case, Angelo, have developed underlying complications. He developed kidney problems, caused by his hyperparathyroidism.

The usual scenario of hyperparathyroidism is, the balanced is disrupted. The blood calcium levels increase (hypercalemia), which may indicate that there is problem in the px parathyroid gland.

The common cause of it is family history with the said disease. Common ways to diagnose is by measuring PTH in the blood sample of the patient. And because there is too much calcium in the system, bone density can be checked too.

The simplified solution for this is the removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland, even if your parathyroid gland has been removed, it can regenerate again to produce a new parathyroid gland.


- Cure Research
- Endocrine. niddk

Friday, June 19, 2009

ExERciSE yoUR bRaiN ceLLs

Quiz time!!

1. What is the average number of parathyroid gland/s an individual must have?
2. What is the major role of parathyroid gland?
3-4. What are the cells that are usually found in the parathyroid gland?
5-7. Name the 3 elements which are regulated by this gland?
8-9. Name at least two disorder associated with the parathyroid gland.
10. Where are the parathyroid gland located?


A 62 y.o. lady went to a doctor and complained of backaches and loss of height. In addition to her complains, she also experience the following: deformity of her spine, and brittle bones.

What could be the possible reason/s for the above mentioned symptoms?
What could be the test that can be ordered by the doctor to diagnose her condition?
Enumerate and discuss briefly other diagnostic test to confirm the initial diagnosis.


A man named Angelo have observed changes to his physical health. he noticed that he easily get tired after doing small tasks in his office. His co-workers observed too that he usually had mood swings.
He had his monthly check up and the laboratory findings revealed:
-blood calcium level increase
-urinalysis reveals stone from his kidney
-increase level of PTH

What could be the probable condition of Angelo?
Give some underlying conditions and complications regarding his condition.

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Parathyroid Gland (Ana Physio)

The smallest Endocrine Gland.

The Parathyroid gland is located posteriorly in the surface of the thyroid gland. Usually, an individual has four to six of it, 8 being the greatest number.

Its main cells are:

a) parathyroid chief cell

b) oxyphil cell

These cells are spread through out the parathyroid gland. They are packed closely to the capillaries, which differentiates this gland from the thyroid gland.

The major role of parathyroid gland is to secrete parathyroid hormone. This hormone is the major regulator of calcium, phosphate and magnesium in the blood.

It increases the blood’s calcium and phosphate by bone resorption. As the values of calcium and magnesium increase, the PTH acts in the kidney by excreting the excess amount of Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the urine.

This process also applies to the values of HPO42-, it also decreases its concentration in the blood through excretion in the urine.

Another role of PTH is to secrete calcitriol, which is the active form of Vit. D. It is also known as 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D.

The role of calcitriol is to increase the absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract.


Principles of Human Anatomy And Physiology by Tortora & Derickson

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